The number of English learners (ELs) who do not reclassify as English proficient after the first five years of schooling has increased across the state of Texas. ELs are a diverse population of students with varying levels of English proficiency. Many students who begin school as an EL reclassify as English proficient in a timely manner and go on to achieve academic success. Students who remain EL after five years in school are considered “long-term English learners” (LTELs) and are at risk for negative academic outcomes, such as lower test scores, higher risk of dropout, and lower on-time high school graduation rates.
The purpose of this brief is to examine student, campus, and neighborhood characteristics that can be considered a risk or protective factors for the likelihood of an EL becoming LTEL, with the goal of helping school districts identify which students may be at risk of becoming LTEL.